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what is profiling

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profiling: (prō′fī′lĭng) n. 1. See DNA profiling . Also known as DNA or genetic typing, DNA profiling is simply the collection, processing and analysis of VNTRs-- unique sequences on the loci (area on a chromosome).VNTR stands for variable number tandem repeats -- meaning that th­e tandem repeats, or pairs of nucleotides, vary in number. Based on their data granularity, on how profilers collect information, they are classified into event based or statistical profilers. In practice, sampling profilers can often provide a more accurate picture of the target program's execution than other approaches, as they are not as intrusive to the target program, and thus don't have as many side effects (such as on memory caches or instruction decoding pipelines). What Is An Em Dash And How Do You Use It? When these patterns or correlations are used to identify or represent people, they can be called profiles. Stories about racial profiling constantly appear in the news, but that doesn’t mean the public has a good grasp on what this discriminatory practice is. [citation needed], Profiler-driven program analysis on Unix dates back to 1973,[7] when Unix systems included a basic tool, prof, which listed each function and how much of program execution time it used. Profilers are used in the performance engineering process. Profiling is the practice of attempting to understand a person or group based on general characteristics or on past behaviors. Also since they don't affect the execution speed as much, they can detect issues that would otherwise be hidden. The Most Surprisingly Serendipitous Words Of The Day. Offender profiling, for example, is a method used during a criminal investigation that allows law enforcement to identify a likely suspect through offender profiling. In short, Criminal profiling (also known as offender profiling and specific profile analysis) is to create a psychological and not only psychological portrait, determine location of the offenders by gathering their personal attributes from crime scene behavior in order to assist in detection of them. Other than a discussion of profiling technologies or population profiling, th Dictionary.com Unabridged Dedicated hardware can go beyond this: ARM Cortex-M3 and some recent MIPS processors JTAG interface have a PCSAMPLE register, which samples the program counter in a truly undetectable manner, allowing non-intrusive collection of a flat profile. Software writers need tools to analyze their programs and identify critical sections of code. Again, profiling, in and of itself is appropriate. [23] For example, adding code to count every procedure/routine call will probably have less effect than counting how many times each statement is obeyed. Data profiling allows you to answer the following questions about your data: 1. More specifically, data profiling sifts through data in order to determine its legitimacy and quality. [6], Performance-analysis tools existed on IBM/360 and IBM/370 platforms from the early 1970s, usually based on timer interrupts which recorded the program status word (PSW) at set timer-intervals to detect "hot spots" in executing code. [16]. Graham, P.B. The Dictionary.com Word Of The Year For 2020 Is …. Learn the 3 Types of Code Profilers", "Getting Started with Profile Guided Optimization", "Matching Wildcards: An Improved Algorithm for Big Data", "List of .Net Profilers: 3 Different Types and Why You Need All of Them", 20 Years of PLDI (1979–1999): A Selection, "Timing and Profiling - Basic Block Profilers", "Optimally profiling and tracing programs", "Evaluate performance for Linux on Power", Need for speed — Eliminating performance bottlenecks, Profiling Runtime Generated and Interpreted Code using the VTune Performance Analyzer, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Profiling_(computer_programming)&oldid=990186127, Articles needing additional references from January 2009, All articles needing additional references, Pages incorrectly using the quote template, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 23 November 2020, at 08:21. Is the data complete? [citation needed] This was an early example of sampling (see below). They generate charts that characterize how an application's performance scales as a function of its input. Are there blank or null values? Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2021, Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition Computer architects need such tools to evaluate how well programs will perform on new architectures. Analytical algorithms detec… What Is “Stochastic Terrorism,” And Why Is It Trending? What are the maximum, minimum, and average values for given data? Data profiling is the process of examining, analyzing, and creating useful summaries of data. Program analysis tools are extremely important for understanding program behavior. In information science, profiling refers to the process of construction and application of user profiles generated by computerized data analysis. How many distinct values are there? Personality profiling has been in common use for over sixty years. Profiling is achieved by instrumenting either the program source code or its binary executable form using a tool called a profiler (or code profiler). See molecular profiling . In this article we will describe what it is, what it isn’t and how you can use it in your business or your life. Which of the following animal names traces its immediate origin to Portuguese? 5. In early 1974 instruction-set simulators permitted full trace and other performance-monitoring features. This technique effectively adds instructions to the target program to collect the required information. An essential beginning to an investigation of this kind would be profiling of every passenger. Then, they can analyze patterns that could predict future victims or offenses. This definition of racial profiling is used in context and coupled with examples to help clarify. Still, kernel code to handle the interrupts entails a minor loss of CPU cycles, diverted cache usage, and is unable to distinguish the various tasks occurring in uninterruptible kernel code (microsecond-range activity). S.L. Sampling profiles are typically less numerically accurate and specific, but allow the target program to run at near full speed. Noun 1. profiling - recording a person's behavior and analyzing psychological characteristics in order to predict or assess their ability in a certain sphere or to identify a particular group of people identification - evidence of identity; something that identifies a person or thing “Affect” vs. “Effect”: Use The Correct Word Every Time. What is Profiling? A sampling profiler probes the target program's call stack at regular intervals using operating system interrupts. In software engineering, profiling ("program profiling", "software profiling") is a form of dynamic program analysis that measures, for example, the space (memory) or time complexity of a program, the usage of particular instructions, or the frequency and duration of function calls. Input-sensitive profilers[11][12][13] add a further dimension to flat or call-graph profilers by relating performance measures to features of the input workloads, such as input size or input values. 2. Profilers, which are also programs themselves, analyze target programs by collecting information on their execution. Profiling is necessary to determine whether or not reasonable suspicion or probable cause exists. They are also relatively immune to over-evaluating the cost of small, frequently called routines or 'tight' loops. Profiling refers to the law enforcement practice of the detention, interdiction, or other disparate treatment of an individual on the basis of the racial or ethnic status of such individual. Instrumentation is key to determining the level of control and amount of time resolution available to the profilers. Data profiling verifies that data columns are populated with the types of data you expect. They can show the relative amount of time spent in user mode versus interruptible kernel mode such as system call processing. Kessler, and M.K. Data profiling is an often-visual assessment that uses a toolbox of business rules and analytical algorithms to discover, understand and potentially expose inconsistencies in your data. Compiler writers often use such tools to find out how well their instruction scheduling or branch prediction algorithm is performing... A profiler can be applied to an individual method or at the scale of a module or program, to identify performance bottlenecks by making long-running code obvious. In fact, if a value is n times the sampling period, the expected error in it is the square-root of n sampling periods." Profilers interrupt program execution to collect information, which may result in a limited resolution in the time measurements, which should be taken with a grain of salt. Is the data duplicated? 4. Criminal Profiling The investigation of a crime with the hope of identifying the responsible party, based on crime scene analysis, investigative psychology, and behavourial evidence analysis Segen's Medical Dictionary. This type of police profiling is … https://panoply.io/analytics-stack-guide/data-profiling-best-practices Many communities have adopted laws to deal with this illegal practice, and some make racial profiling training available to their law enforcement agencies. [3] Profiling results can be ingested by a compiler that provides profile-guided optimization. That inserted code outputs analysis data. Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012, the use of personal characteristics or behavior patterns to make generalizations about a person, as in, the use of these characteristics to determine whether a person may be engaged in illegal activity, as in, the practice of categorizing people and predicting their behaviour according to particular characteristics such as race or age, MH370’s Black Boxes Are Dead but the Investigation Is Very Much Alive. process of linking an offender’s actions at the crime scene to their most likely characteristics to help police investigators narrow down and prioritize a pool of most likely suspects Sharpen your thoughts on racial profiling … Are there anomalous patterns in your data? However, if you’re looking for paternity testing services or genetic art, you’d need to buy a DNA test specifically for this purpose, you wouldn’t be able to interpret your own profile to these ends! 3. Why Do “Left” And “Right” Mean Liberal And Conservative? Most commonly, profiling information serves to aid program optimization. Some commonly used[17] statistical profilers for Java/managed code are SmartBear Software's AQtime[18] and Microsoft's CLR Profiler. This tracking does not just happen when you are on a particular site, but it occurs the whole time you are browsing. What is the distribution of patterns in your data? This knowledge is then used to improve data quality as an important part of monitoring and improving the health of these newer, bigger data sets. People are worried about profiling people for the color of their skin. ­In any situation where DNA may be used, a DNA profile must be created. But it can go wrong. Are these the ranges you expect? [5] Profilers are built into some application performance management systems that aggregate profiling data to provide insight into transaction workloads in distributed applications. Deterministic profiling implies higher accuracy and higher overhead. The ATOM platform converts a program into its own profiler: at compile time, it inserts code into the program to be analyzed. In software engineering, profiling ("program profiling", "software profiling") is a form of dynamic program analysis that measures, for example, the space (memory) or time complexity of a program, the usage of particular instructions, or the frequency and duration of function calls. Sometimes referred to as psychometric testing or psychological profiling – is a means of measuring an individual’s personality in a particular situation. Is the data unique? This technique - modifying a program to analyze itself - is known as "instrumentation". Data profiling is the process for assessing the quality and structure of data sources so you have a complete, 100-percent-accurate picture of your data. For the official GDPR definition of “profiling”, please see Article 4.4 of the GDPR. [1] A profiler can be used to understand code from a timing point of view, with the objective of optimizing it to handle various runtime conditions[2] or various loads. The process yields a high-level overview which aids in the discovery of data qualityissues, risks, and overall trends. Long story short version: Profiling is the bread and butter of delivering more targeted, relevant marketing that consumers value. Interruptible kernel mode such as a function of its what is profiling of code in gender profiling for code! Site, but a statistical approximation need such tools to analyze itself is! Commonly, profiling, in and of itself is appropriate risks, and simulation methods their enforcement! 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